Saturday, May 23, 2020

Iliad Essay - 1502 Words

quot;The Iliadquot;, an epic tale told by the famous Greek author Homer, is focused primarily on the Trojan War between the Greeks, or Argives, and the Trojans. This war was filled with bloody battles and a massive loss of life. Homer tells stories about a duration of time during this fighting, and not the entire war. He uses his story-telling abilities to focus the audience on the garish and sometimes mundane drudgery of war. Due to his removal from the actual time of these battles, his stories may be embellished or not completely accurate descriptions of what did or did not happen. Overall, however, the Iliad is believed to be mostly true. Homer was born, most likely, in the 8th Century B.C. He is widely believed to be the best and†¦show more content†¦Most of the clues as to ancient Greek life come as no surprise. It is not surprising to find that the Greeks recognized the Moon during this period: quot; the massive shield flashing far and wide like a full round moon quot; (p. 500, 422) Nor is it shocking to hear of lions in Greece at this time: quot; like a great bearded lion the dogs and field hands drive back quot; (p.446, 126-127) However, even though these similes sometimes may seem unimportant or even redundant, every situation they are used in is different. A lion may be just another lion, but no two conflicts that they describe are exactly alike. Homer uses this thought to convey the energy, and even at times beauty, of his fighting scenes. The one main theme of the plot to The Iliad is its raging battle. So, most of the similes throughout the book are about warfare. Battles are compared to things such as animals, weather, or even fire. In consideration, these three things are actually connected by their inherent naturalness. Animals, weather, and fire are all parts of what we refer to as quot;naturequot;. By evaluating Homers similes with quot;naturequot; included, we today can see what ancient Greek quot;naturequot; may have been like. First of all, most of the similes from The Iliad are comparing something to an animal. Several animals that are mentioned throughout the book are,Show MoreRelatedThe Iliad Of The Homer s Iliad Essay1475 Words   |  6 PagesThe Iliad ranks as one of the most important and most influential works in terms of world literatures since its establishment. Between the underlying standard to which the Iliad offers us as audience members, along with the plethora of writers that have followed in the footsteps to which Homer’s Iliad paved, the impact that the Iliad has played is remarkable in itself. While the Iliad can be credited for much of present day literature we study today, Hollywood can be created for the plethora ofRead MoreThe Iliad1088 Words   |  5 PagesThe Iliad is the quintessential epic. It is full with gods, goddesses, heroes, war, honor, glory, and the like. However, for just short while near the very conclusion Homer avoids all of those epic qualities. The banq uet scene in Book XXIV is the most touching, the most human scene in the entire poem . In the midst of the dreadful gulf of war and anger there occurs an intimate moment between two men who ironically have much in common below the surface. Priam, old and fragile, makes his wayRead MoreAnalysis Of The Iliad 915 Words   |  4 Pagesto support this line. One such work of literature is Homer’s great epic, The Iliad. This poem, encompassing the telling of the great Trojan War, is one of the best examples of such a text. Throughout the text, it lays before the reader many separate scenes of violence, rather than grouping all of the battles together into one war like historic anthologies do. There are many scenes of violence throughout the poem, The Iliad, many of which contribute to the complete work, a small selection of these scenesRead MoreThe Epic Of The Iliad943 Words   |  4 Pages The Iliad tells the story of the battles between the Achaeans and the Trojans, and the events happening during the weeks of arguing between King Agamemnon, the leader of the Greeks, and Achilles, Greece’s greatest warrior. These events play the role of a playground for the gods, as they often intervene and usually change the outcome of certain events. In regard to Homer, Longinus claims that he feels â€Å"indeed that in recording as he does the wounding of the gods, their quarrels, vengeanceRead MoreThe Iliad And The Odyssey1060 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"Hateful to me as the gates of Hades is that man who hides one thing in his heart and speaks another.† (The Iliad pg.405) The quote is relevant to the stories Homer created during the period of the Trojan War. Homer orally performed two of his best works The Iliad and The Odyssey. Homer’s stories are old and probably translated differently than their original telling. Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey still show the basic human emotions and are an inspiration to other authors, poets, and oral presentersRead MoreThe Iliad and the Odyssey1510 Words   |  7 Pages The Iliad and the Odyssey are two classic stories told by Homer. Within these two stories the roles of the gods are very important to the story line and ho w they affect the characters throughout. In the Iliad, more gods are involved with the characters whereas in the Odyssey there are only two major gods that affect two major characters. The roles of the gods in the Iliad are through two different stances of immortal versus immortal and mortal versus immortal. The roles of the gods in the OdysseyRead MoreThe Iliad By Homer892 Words   |  4 Pages The Iliad by Homer depicts the great struggle by Agamemnon and the Greeks to take the mighty city state of Troy and return Helen to her rightful husband, Menelaus. While many ponder if the war actually happened, or why the gods always seemed to be more human than humans themselves, few ask the key but often overlooked question; why is Agamemnon the leader of the Greeks in the first place? What happened that put him in charge of the Greek forces? Why does there seem to be an underlying resentmentRead MoreThe Eruption Of The Iliad1558 Words   |  7 PagesFay Blakley English 2030 – W4 Prof. Dr. Atkinson 24 September 2015 Humanization of The Iliad The eruption of the Trojan War might stand as one of the most relevant events in Greek mythology. A raging war between kings and gods alike shed blood bath, eventually bringing Troy to a crumble. Was the war intended to be a battle between the mortals? Throughout the epic of Homer’s The Iliad, the gods take on human characteristics, allowing their feelings guide them, intervening, through the war. Read MoreThe Iliad, by Homer980 Words   |  4 Pages The Iliad written by Homer in the days of Ancient Greece has become one of the most epic poems of all time. It is a poem that has been debated for centuries. Within the tale of Achilles and the wrath of war lies a magnificent object that is shortly mentioned in Book 18. The brief section in Book XVIII, lines 505-660, described the shield that Achilles would carry into battle. However, it also tells us something about the nature of Achilles and his heroic image full of rage and anger. In orderRead MoreThe Iliad And The Odyssey1498 Words   |  6 PagesAn Influential Poem The Iliad is a poem that provides important stories with insight into early human society. It was an ancient story written centuries ago about two civilizations that battled against each other. â€Å"The Iliad tells the story of the clash of two great civilizations, and the effects of war on both the winners and losers† (Homer 222). In addition to its influence on Greek poetry, the Iliad is a great Homeric epic that has long helped shape critical schools of thought. It is not

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Critical Analysis of the Dsm Iv Tr - 1073 Words

1 Critical analysis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The International Classification of Diseases (ICD 10) published by the World health organisation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by the American Psychiatric Association are the most widely used classifications of mental disorders throughout the world. These classification systems were created to provide a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders thus allowing for better and more accurate communication between mental health workers. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is used mostly in the United States of America and in varying degrees around†¦show more content†¦These are considered to be long standing criticisms of the DSM. These problems were originally highlighted by the Rosenhan experiment in the 1973. The experiment which was conducted by psychologist David Rosenhan is considered to be an important and influential eye opener to the shortcomings of not only the DSM but also all other psychiatric classification systems. Critics, such as psychiatrist Niall McLaren, also argue that the DSM lacks validity because its categories do not have a scientific basis, and that it lacks reliability partly because each diagnosis cannot be given an exclusive criterion. He says that while it has been found that different diagnoses share many criteria, what appear to be different criteria are often just rewordings of the same idea, meaning that the decision to allocate one diagnosis or another to a patient is to some extent a matter of personal prejudice on the part of the clinician making the diagnosis. It has also been pointed out that the DSM would fare better if the categorical classification now in use was replaced with a dimensional classification since its been increasingly recognised that mental disorders lie on a continuum rather than in one single qualitative category with clear cut off points . E.g. the 2 personality disorders of Axis II are increasingly regarded as extreme variants of common personality characteristics. Another aspect of the DSM that has attracted a lot of criticism is itsShow MoreRelatedThe Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders ( Dsm )1788 Words   |  8 PagesHistory of DSM The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a mental health diagnostic system that allow clinicians (i.e. psychiatrics, psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists and nurses) to have a common understanding of mental health conditions (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). It also enables clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, researchers and policy-makers to make clear decisions around access to services and treatment guidelines for the clientsRead More Use of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to Evaluate Post Traumatic Stress Disorder1541 Words   |  7 Pagesthe basis of this assignment to evaluate someone who exhibits symptoms of PTSD. Sometimes the symptoms of PTSD are exaggerated or faked. The basic characteristics and the purpose of this tool will be discussed as well as how the tool is used. An analysis of the MMPI-2 will reveal the relationship between MMPI-2 and a major theory of personality. After identifying the psychom etric properties for PTSD populations, the question of the adequacy of MMPI-2 will be answered by reviewing literature. LastRead MoreEssay about Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1072 Words   |  5 Pagesbeen described as ‘The engine that drives social phobia’ (2004, Bennett-Levy J, 2004, p.142) and self-focus is central to the Clark social phobia model. The type of self-focussed attention is not self-loving and accepting, it is instead negative and critical. I have not met a social phobic who thought others evaluated them positively all the time. It has a negative twist. The socially phobic’s intuition and gut feelings often draws erroneous and sometimes illogical conclusions. These feelings areRead MoreAmerican Beauty: Analysis of Lester Burnham Essay1658 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction to the Analysis of Lester Burnham When I was told to choose a movie to perform a psychoanalysis on a character. I did not know what movie to choose. After watching the two hour long film on the multiple characters that seemed to be struggling to find their inner happiness: American Beauty. I knew that I should not look any further. One character that especially stood out was, Lester Burnham. A forty-two year old father with a mid-life crisis. In the film, American Beauty Lester BurnhamRead MoreEffects of Adderall on Learning Essay1705 Words   |  7 Pagesresearch conducted by Erinn L. Rigney, among the key factors for there being more people who do not actually have the disorder but still have access to ADHD medication is the vague procedures for diagnosing ADHD. It is noted in the excerpt from the DSM-IV-TR, the criteria used for ADHD diagnosis, that, â€Å"In a child six to twelve years old who presents inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, academic underachievement, or behavior problems, primary care clinici ans should initiate an evaluation for ADHDRead MoreAp Psychology2810 Words   |  12 Pagesan obsessive-compulsive disorder. B) a dysthymic disorder. C) schizophrenia. D) agoraphobia. E) bipolar disorder. ____ 27. Although experiencing severely traumatic events may lead to PTSD, it is also likely to lead to A) schizophrenia. B) linkage analysis. C) bipolar disorder. D) increased personal strength. E) generalized anxiety disorder. ____ 28. Indira, a third-grade teacher, frequently suffers from dizziness, heart palpitations, muscular tension, and fatigue. She is also continually agitatedRead MoreAbnormal Psychology. Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior20707 Words   |  83 Pages3 CHAPTER Classification and Assessment of Abnormal Behavior CHAPTER OUTLINE HOW ARE ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR PATTERNS METHODS OF ASSESSMENT 80–99 CLASSIFIED? 70–77 The Clinical Interview The DSM and Models of Abnormal Behavior Computerized Interviews Psychological Tests STANDARDS OF ASSESSMENT 77–80 Neuropsychological Assessment Reliability Behavioral Assessment Validity Cognitive Assessment Physiological Measurement SOCIOCULTURAL AND ETHNIC FACTORS IN ASSESSMENT 99–100 SUMMING UP 100–101 TRead More General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Essay2269 Words   |  10 Pagesnormative (Raskin,2012). Standardly, to diagnose a mental disorder the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders (ICD), published by the World Health Organization, or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, are used (Bolton,2008). This essay will focus on General Anxiety Disorder (GAD). First the essay will discuss what GAD is and how it is diagnosed. The essay will then explore the differences of GADRead MoreApa Challenge2740 Words   |  11 PagesBook Reference Chow, T. W., amp; Cummings, J. L. (2000). The amygdala and Alzheimer’s disease. In J. P. Aggleton (Ed.), The amygdala: A functional analysis (pp. 656–680). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Formatting Dissertations Long, M. (2007). School media librarians as transformational leaders (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 329321) Study Notes: Common APA Style and Formatting Challenges The following guidelinesRead More ADHD and Its Treatments Essay examples1852 Words   |  8 Pagesa diagnostic tool, scientists stress they cannot be used effectively for that purpose (Surgeon Gen 5-8). Psychologists and Psychiatrists have recognized several different types of ADHD. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), a tool commonly used by professionals to diagnose mental disorders, illustrates three patterns of behavior to note when diagnosing the disorder. These patterns include (NIMH): ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Consistent hyperactivity and impulsivity (above and beyond those

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Disparities Free Essays

Possibly: IN per capita with Life expectancy: IN per capita will allow citizens to afford deiced and health services, meaning they could treat deadly sicknesses such as cancer or expensive treatments Life expectancy global patterns: Low life expectancy. Most of Africa, especially Southern, Central, Eastern and Western (Sub-Sahara Africa) including very low countries such as . Anomaly of Afghanistan in Africa, and Laos. We will write a custom essay sample on Disparities or any similar topic only for you Order Now Middle life expectancy: Anomalies in Africa, including Equatorial Guiana and Reiterate and Madagascar. Middle nations Include Central South America, countries such as Peru and Brazil and even Bola, although low compared to the mentioned previously. North Africa, countries such as Egypt and Morocco and Eastern Asia (China) plus South East Asia including Indonesia and the Philippines. High: North America and Western Europe, Japan and Australia/New Zealand. Anomalies include: Bolivia/Guyana, Greenland, Madagascar/Equatorial Guiana, Haiti, Afghanistan. Bolivia = Natural causes, high altitude in the whole countries makes the population live under constant stress and pressure, exhausting faster organs. Low literacy rates: Concentrates mostly in Central and Western Africa and South Central Asia, including Nations such as India and Pakistan. Nations with lowest literacy include Chad, Nigeria and Mali. Middle literacy rates: South America, including Peru. South Asia including China, and the Middle East including Saudi Arabia and Oman. Anomalies in Africa, including Egypt and Madagascar and most of Southern Africa. High literacy rates: North America and most of Europe (old soviet USSR included), with slight high rates in South America including Argentina surprisingly and Guyana. Southern Africa surprisingly, with anomalies including Zanzibar. Australia and New Zealand ANOMALIES: Portugal, Bosnia and Serbia. Yemen. Peru. Papua New Guiana. Guatemala. Haiti. Zanzibar. Cambodia. Low IN per capita: Mostly concentrated in Central, Eastern and Western Africa including nations such as the Deem. Republic of Congo, Nigeria and Niger. Indonesia and Papua New Guiana stand out in South East Asia and South Central Africa, Southern Africa including South America. The Balkan and most of Asia. High IN: North America, Europe. Undernourishment global patterns: Low undernourishment: Distributed in relation to Medics, mostly found in North America and Western Europe plus Russia. Northern Africa regions including Libya and Egypt, southern South America e. G. Argentina and Uruguay and Australia/New Zealand. Middle undernourishment: Distributed along the equator (tropical areas) with nations in central South America such as Peru and Brazil, North America including Mexico and Eastern Africa including Nigeria. Indonesia and Eastern Asia nations including China and Vietnam as well count with 5-19% of undernourished. High undernourishment: Southern African Nations including the Congo and Central African Republic, Anomaly of Bolivia in South America and most of Central America and the Caribbean including Panama and Honduras. Other nations in South Asia including India and Pakistan, plus Manner and Mongolia. Anomalies: Bolivia in South America, Libya in Africa, North Korea, the Balkans in Europe. HIVE/AIDS 1. Explain which of the maps is the most useful 2. Using the map on the right describe the distribution of people living with HIVE Explaining the development gap: How to cite Disparities, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Difference and Soccer free essay sample

Basketball and Soccer In modern life, most people enjoy amazing sports. Two of most exciting and common sports to participate and appreciate are basketball and soccer. People can not only watch both of them on television, but they can also play them for recreation and health. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the differences and similarities between these two sports. There are three aspects of these two sports: athletes, popularity, and equipment. The most noticeable difference between these two kinds of sports is their requirement of players. In conclusion, soccer and basketball use different equipments for athletes to compete. These are the three basic similarities and differences between basketball and soccer. As we can see, through the comparison above, people love these two kinds of sports because they contain good competitiveness based on fair principles. These two sports motivate people to keep fit and to be stronger. We will write a custom essay sample on Difference and Soccer or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Thereby, basketball and football better annotate the proverb Life lies in the movement.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Macbeth 87 Essays - Characters In Macbeth, English-language Films

Macbeth 87 In the play Macbeth, there were many interesting sections which could be concentrated on due to the suspense and the involvement of the supernatural. The use of the supernatural in the witches, the visions, the ghost, and the apparitions is a key element in making the concept of the play work and in making the play interesting. Looking through each Act and Scene of the play, it is noticed that the supernatural is definitely a major factor on the play's style. The use of the supernatural occurs at the beginning of the play, with three witches predicting the fate of Macbeth. This gives the audience a clue to what the future holds for Macbeth. When the battles lost and won (Act I, Scene I, l.4) was said by the second witch. It says that every battle is lost by one side and won by another. Macbeth's fate is that he will win the battle, but will lose his time of victory for the battle of his soul. After the prophecies of the witches' revealed the fate of Macbeth, the plan in which to gain power of the throne is brought up. The only way to gain power of the throne was for Macbeth to work his way to the throne, or to murder King Duncan. Murdering the king was an easier plan since the motivation in his dreams urged him on. Lady Macbeth also relied on the supernatural by her soliloquy of calling upon the evil spirits to give her the power to plot the murder of Duncan without any remorse or conscience (Act I, Scene V, ll.42-57). The three sisters a re capable of leading people into danger resulting in death, such as the sailor who never slept (Act I, Scene III, ll.1-37). Lady Macbeth has convinced her husband Macbeth to murder King Duncan. On the night they planned to kill Duncan, Macbeth is waiting for Lady Macbeth to ring the signal bell to go up the stairs to Duncan's chamber. He sees the vision of the floating dagger. The interest of the dagger is that it leads Macbeth towards the chamber by the presence of evil of the dagger being covered with blood. Then the bell rings and Macbeth stealthily proceeds up the staircase to Duncan's chamber. Once the murder has been committed, eventually Banquo has his suspicions about Macbeth killing Duncan to have power of the throne. There is constantly more guilt and fear inside Macbeth and his wife that they decide to have Banquo killed. Macbeth and his wife attend a banquet in which a ghost appears. Once the murderer notified Macbeth that the deed was done, he observed the ghost of Banquo sitting in his regular seat. This caused Macbeth to act in a wild manner, making people suspicious of his actions. (Act II I, Scene VI, ll.31-120). The use of the supernatural has increased the suspense now that Macbeth is constantly relying on the prophecies of the three witches. Hecate, the Queen of witches is angry with the three sisters for not involving her in their encounters with Macbeth. The witches plan to lead Macbeth to his downfall by making him feel over-confident. (Act III, Scene V, ll.1-35). Further on in the play, Macbeth finds his way to the witches' cave and demands to know what lies ahead for him. The three witches predict what he is going to ask and produce the first apparition which is an armed head. Macbeth!, Macbeth!, Macbeth!, beware of Macduff; beware thane of Fife. Dismiss me: enough. (Act VI, Scene I, ll.77-78). The first apparition tells Macbeth to beware of Macduff. Then the second apparition appears (a bloody child), and says: Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth. (Act IV, Scene I, ll.85-87). This apparition informs Macbeth that no man born from a woman can harm him. finally, the last apparition appears and is a child crowned, with a tree in his hand. The apparition is saying that he will never be defeated until Great Birnam wood shall come against him to High Dunsinane Hill. Be lion melted, proud, and take no care who chafes, who frets,

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Bouncers Essay Example

Bouncers Essay Example Bouncers Paper Bouncers Paper Essay Topic: Literature Bouncers was a comedy that was enacted solely by four men dressed throughout in simple black tuxedos, indicating, of course, that they were doormen. These four men played a variety of at least three different characters each- both male and female- and depicted the typical Friday nightlife scene via snapshots of different people and their contrasting perspectives. John Godber, the creator of Bouncers originally came from the North of England. He obviously based his play around a setting that he was familiar with, and writes about his own experiences. The play is a social comment on the life of the uneducated working class in the UK, but has been performed all over the world. We watched the play in Dubai, a city with a cultural background that is quite different from the UK. This was probably why many of the jokes and puns cracked in the course of the play were lost out on the audience. However, I found it commendable that the actors had kept this in mind and had altered parts of the script to include little trivial things like specific venues in the city of Dubai. For example, going to the Mall of the Emirates was mentioned casually at one point. This appealed to the audience since it not only made the play seem more relevant, but it made them feel special since it seemed like it had been engineered specially for them. On first entering the theatre itself, the mood of the play was created. The hall was small and compact with a simple stage and rows of seats that were placed one behind another rather than in levels. The racy 90s dance music that blared from the speakers gave the audience a taster of what they would expect. Four solemn-looking men greeted us at the door, their smart black tuxedos making it clear that they were bouncers. They sternly told some people off for being so informal as to appear in sneakers but when the lights dimmed, we were in for a surprise: the bouncers climbed onto stage as the actors themselves! I thought that this was a nice touch to not only warm up the actors so that they fully immersed themselves in the character, but also an excellent way to set the scene and get the audience more involved in the play by giving them a fully rounded theatre experience using invisible theatre techniques as well. The story centered mainly on the lives of four nightclub bouncers: Les (Matthew Duquenoy), Judd (Jonathan Floyd), Ralph (Simon Watts), and Lucky Eric (John Carter). Of these four, Lucky Eric could perhaps be called the protagonist. He was older and generally more solemn than his three colleagues. As the plot unfolded we discovered that he tended to be as compassionate as the other males described in the story were shameful and disreputable. Lucky Eric had many monologues throughout the play, and through them he related instances that really convinced us of his character- instances like how angry he would get when he would see young, drunk schoolgirls taken advantage of by the vulgar men who frequented the nightclubs. Eric has quite a tragic past, with a wife who left him to become a sleazy bar girl. He is essentially a lonely man, but tries to hide it under his macho, tough character. The other, younger bouncers also tease him constantly about his body image. The stories of eight people, enjoying a night out, were also depicted- four men and four women. It was interesting to see their varied range of personality. The girls ranged from the exotic Sexy Suzy to the more mundane headache-ridden Elaine. The men also were of varying characters. Through all the fast-paced action, however, the play held a deep underlying message that was not lost out in all the humour. It was a message showing how hopeless and bleak peoples lives could become. What all the characters shared was the feeling of failure, since they felt that the only way they could be successful was to enjoy the nightlife. All the characters were desperate people who went out at night looking for love, mistakenly lost under the illusion that sex was love. What I admired most was the fact that they were completely independent of sets and props. The set was a plain black stage and remained the same throughout, with only two bar stools for aid. Despite this, however, the actors used their space to its full potential. The lack of props did not prevent them from pretending that there were props. In some cases, one of them would casually rest an elbow on the empty air, effectively representing the idea that they were leaning against a non-existent table. Since the characters played so many roles, they had to be able to switch between them effectively in such a way that the audience would not be confused as to who they were playing. To go about this, the actors exaggerated their characters and made them more physical- using their voice, actions and postures. When they were playing women, the actors minced about stage with their shoulders held back, talking in a high pitch and making use of their space by angling their hands and gesturing in very stereotypically feminine ways. Sexy Suzy was a perfect example: she made it clear that all the men around her hung on to her every word and struck very feminine poses. It was essential for the characters to be stereotypical if we had to be able to distinguish between the men and the women (since the costumes remained the same). To do this, the actors included little acts which are typically associated with females: when the girls are first shown on stage, they are doing each others hair and gossiping wide-eyed about each other. When Rosie loses her boyfriend she wails mournfully in an overly dramatic way. It is particularly funny to see the girls behaving very sweet to each others faces while making snide remarks behind each others backs. The women were depicted as shallow, superficial characters. Despite being equipped with only a handbag each for props, it was sometimes almost easy to forget the girls were in fact men! It was obviously much easier for the actors to play men, yet it was no easy task to accurately portray their contrasting personalities. However this was done very well. Emphasis and exaggeration was used to their advantage. I thought that Lucky Eric, in particular, did a great job in displaying to us strong emotions like his pent-up fury. His monologues provided an insight into his innermost thoughts, and were delivered with such power and attack that we could feel what he was feeling. One of his strongest monologues was when he told the story of how angry he had felt when he once saw a group of young men taking advantage of a drunk girl in a bar. Lucky Eric spoke with extreme feeling. Give me a kiss, they said, said Lucky Eric about the men in the bar. When explaining this, his tone of voice got loud and full of rage. But at the end, Lucky Eric explained that after he had sent the men away, he had turned to the girl. Give me a kiss, she said. The line was timely and excellent, using the power of repetition; and Eric used it to its full potential. Having reached the anticlimax of his monologue, his voice became soft and almost wounded, his shoulders hunched and his head hung. The last lines of this monologue were delivered with equal power, in a tone of frustration and sadness: Go home, I told her. Just-just go home. Despite this, I felt that Lucky Erics monologues could have been slightly shorter. I appreciated that the slow tempo of the monologues was meant intentionally to contrast the fast pace of the rest of the play; and that the slow tempo was meant to create a deeper message. However, they were slightly rambling and Eric tended to repeat himself slightly. Perhaps if he had moved around more then his monologues might have been more effective. He tended to stand still in one spot throughout his speech, and alternate between two or three expressions and postures only. The audiences attention was distracted slightly when these monologues came on. Judd also did a good job in showing his personality- his immaturity and fickleness was depicted in the way sheer boredom made him eager to get involved in fights. He would constantly try to provoke Lucky Eric, teasing him about something that Eric found very painful: the thought of his wife. In the scene where Eric finally breaks and fights with him, Judd turns morose and resentful. The director planned this scene well, making their fight look realistic by using space well. The audience probably found this scene unexpected but it was effective in illustrating the personalities of the two characters. Not only was the pitch and tenor of the voice involved in character transition, but accents were also a useful tool in this. At one point, the actors had to play upper-class men, going golfing. Their accents and their postures changed dramatically: they became more formal, more proper, their voices became deeper and cleaner, and they looked taller as if they were aware of their importance. The audience found these two upper class men very funny because it was so contrasting from the other, more coarse characters. It was a sort of light break from the plot because it showed, just for an instance, that there were people other than the working class, that the working class depicted only a segment of UK nightlife. Positioning was the other character transition aid. When changing roles, the characters spun around about their feet and landed in a position and posture that was suited to the new role. The bouncers, despite walking around during their speeches, always initially started off in one row with their hands behind their backs and their feet slightly apart (probably to indicate a more masculine posture). This was a method of showing rather than telling the audience that they were someone different. During monologues, the positioning and the lighting changed. The stage was bathed in a yellowish white light, with a spotlight focused on the key character, who moved forward to occupy the center of the stage. The other characters, meanwhile, moved back and faced their backs to the audience. There was one scene where Les was explaining his travails with a rugby team who came to the bar, and the other three actors played the rugby team on the other corner of the stage while Les talked in a spotlight. These methods were very effective because they focused attention on one actor, and the audience therefore found it easier to understand his perspective. Lighting was a very important element of the play. To make up for the lack of set, creative lighting was used in certain places to enhance the mood of the moment. In the scene inside the disco there were multicoloured lights flashing through the stage, and for a scene in which they were depicting a pornographic movie, a white strobe light flashed rhythmically; helping not only to create the sleazy background, but also to make it clear that the scene was on TV. Each set of characters was given its own lighting scheme. When the four actors were playing bouncers, the shape projected on the background screen was blue, when they were playing the young men, the shape was green, and when they were playing women it was pink. The colours were carefully chosen to be symbolic of the groups of characters they were representing; for example, pink is generally associated with women and blue is a more masculine colour. The shape that was projected on the screen rremained the same for the most part of the play. It was a rough contour of a heart, which was again symbolic of the theme of the play. At the end of Act One, the heart was highlighted in red, perhaps to emphasize what the characters were looking for. Music was an element that was used throughout the performance. Light rhythmic instrumentals were used to build up the tempo etc. and sometimes, specific songs were used as part of the comedy. When Rosy found that her boyfriend had been cheating on her, she sobs loudly on stage, and suddenly, the song I will survive plays on the speakers with Rosie lip-synching along in a dramatic and hilarious way! When the bouncers come on stage, deep classical music is played to give a very macho, manly feel. It is also interesting to note that when Lucky Eric and Judd have a fight, the music that is playing is from the ballet Romeo and Juliet; it is the song that is played when the rich Capulet is showing off about his wealth. Although the play had a realistic setting and a very genuine message to give, the performance itself did not use naturalistic techniques. Drama techniques like flashbacks, audience asides, monologues, tableaux and freeze-frames were constantly employed throughout the performance. The lighting was also strong and vibrant, in colours that were perhaps more symbolic than realistic. The costume and make-up were as subtle as the sets and props. The four characters never changed out of their black tuxedos, and if they had had any make-up on it was just so that their faces could be seen clearly against the light. The tuxedos were simple, universal, and made them all look the same. The wonderful thing about Bouncers was the fact that it not only had good acting, but also a good script. The language used accurately portrayed the setting, and the conversations held different contrasts. There were monologues where the tempo of the play needed to be slowed down, but there were rapid interplays of dialogue between characters when they needed to maintain the upbeat rhythm. Much of the script rhymed too. This added to the humour in the play! Some specific scenes were particularly impressive. In some dancing scenes, only the four actors managed to effectively give the impression of being caught in a crowd of people. They pushed, shoved, crawled, and mopped sweat from their brows; everything appropriately exaggerated. Another scene was a snapshot of a taxi ride, and although there were no props, sets or even parts of the dialogue that suggested that the characters were in a taxi, just their actions made it clear. They swayed, jolted and panted where the taxi was too fast, and even bounced in their seats where necessary. The movie scene was also well depicted. Two of the actors were playing the characters in the TV itself while the other two were watching the scene. The two watching the scene occasionally paused the movie by raising an arm- and the TV scene then froze. When a rewind had to be done, the TV characters enacted all their movements backwards. I thought that this was very effective. What really makes a play successful is using the medium of acting uniquely and effectively. The play should be able to give you a different feeling than if you had read the story in a book, or watched it as a movie. Bouncers definitely fulfilled this criterion. The variety of techniques that were used, along with the superb acting skills and the physical actions made us feel that the storyline wasnt the only important thing in the story; we wouldnt have felt the same if we had read it in a book. Similarly, the audience interaction in the beginning of the show, as well as the general atmosphere that had been created, made one feel that it was better to have watched Bouncers as a play in a theatre rather than a movie on TV. In conclusion, I was awed by the performance of the actors in Bouncers and was impressed by the script and the directions. The play was a source of inspiration to succeed in my own devised dramas!

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Relationship between Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Essay

The Relationship between Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Development - Essay Example Economic theory provides a set of thoughts and methods for examining the distribution of limited resources. Unless entrepreneurship ultimately develops products from limited resources, it can be of minimum economic interest, even though it may possess greater social significance. The idea of selection and therefore decision making is essential to economic theory. Entrepreneurship acts as an individual quality which allows certain persons to make decisions with long run outcomes. When economic development is viewed from historical viewpoint, the role of an entrepreneur arrives into central focus. By acting in different ways, entrepreneurs can achieve success which causes other people to change their thoughts and therefore help to alter the historical economic progression. Entrepreneurial efforts are needed for developing an enhanced distribution of resources and transmitting their significant experience to other nations. If two nations differ in their talents of entrepreneurship, then there will be a propensity for developments to invent new things with the copious ability of entrepreneurs. If there is lack of native entrepreneurs in any nation, then foreign entrepreneurs from economically prosperous nations enter the backward country and develop new innovation through proper distribution of resources. At a macroeconomic level, an entrepreneur plays a vital role in the establishment of organizations. Economic theory suggests that there is close relation between personal qualities of entrepreneur and economic success of organization. One of the most exciting aspects of successful entrepreneurs is that they are often drawn from marginal groups in society which try to find alternative possibilities of social progression near them. Thus, it is evident that society and its traditions have a significant impact on the development of entrepreneurs (Casson, 2003). Schumpeter had defined the â€Å"entrepreneur as innovator† as one who drives economic development. A ccording to Peter F. Drucker, â€Å"Innovation is the specific tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit change as an opportunity for a different business or a different service.† The innovative activity of entrepreneur nourishes the pioneering procedure of creative destruction by initiating continuous instabilities to the economic system and by generating prospects for economic growth. Schumpeter’s theory expects that an entrepreneur can contribute in economic development (Wong & Et. Al., 2005). He was of the view that an entrepreneur can innovate, motivated by competition to develop technology, business and organizational structure. He characterized innovation as an â€Å"industrial mutation† which continuously transforms the financial structure and destroys the existing ones. The procedure of creative destruction is a vital element of entrepreneurship (McCraw, n.d.). Creative destruction is made on dynamic, cautious and commercial efforts to modi fy market arrangements and can be favourable for further innovations and revenue opportunities. Schumpeter’s business cycle is viewed as the outcome of innovation which involves the development of new thoughts and its application in a new product, procedure or service. It can result in the dynamic development of a national economy,